We propose a scalable, modular, fault-tolerant architecture for quantum computing based on Rydberg arrays and Rydberg compatible optical cavities. While previous modular architectures have focused on very small modules containing 2-5 qubits, our architecture consists of large modules containing thousands of physical qubits, which form surface code patches that are linked together by optical cavity photonic interconnects. While the low fidelity of Bell pairs generated via photonic interconnects has been a major challenge for all previously proposed modular architectures, our approach is uniquely immune to Bell pair infidelity because communication errors only occur along one edge of the code. Numerical simulations indicate a threshold for communication errors of about 10%. Moreover, because no distillation is required, in contrast to previous schemes, local gate requirements remain around 1%. These relaxed communication requirements enable the fault-tolerant connection of currently available Rydberg arrays of many atoms using only modest quality Bell pairs. We give quantitative performance estimates showing that a single optical cavity of modest quality allows Bell pair distribution fast enough to realize 10 kHz surface code cycles—much faster than current coherence times—as well as sufficiently fast syndrome readout and atom reloading.
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