Driving a many-body system out of equilibrium induces phenomena such as the emergence and decay of transient states, which can manifest itself as pattern and domain formation. The understanding of these phenomena expands the scope of established thermodynamics into the out-of-equilibrium domain. We report our theoretical and experimental study on the out-of-equilibrium dynamics of a bosonic lattice model subjected to a strong dc field, realized as ultracold atoms in a strongly tilted optical lattice. We observe the emergence of pronounced density-wave patterns, which spontaneously break the underlying lattice symmetry. The experimental observation utilizes a single-shot imaging technique with two-dimensional single-site resolution in three-dimensional systems, which also resolves the domain structure. Our study suggests that the short-time dynamics arises from resonant pair tunneling processes within an effective description of the tilted Hubbard model. More broadly, we establish the far out-of-equilibrium regime of lattice models subjected to a strong dc field, as an exemplary and paradigmatic scenario for transient pattern formation.
H. P. Zahn, V. P. Singh, M. N. Kosch, L. Asteria, L. Freystatzky, K. Sengstock, L. Mathey, and C. Weitenberg, Phys. Rev. X 12, 021014 (2022)
|Presenter name||Ludwig Mathey|
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